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September 29, 2020, 08:38:14 am
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Spamage
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« Reply #175 on: September 12, 2020, 05:52:28 pm »
« edited: September 13, 2020, 06:04:16 pm by Spamage »

Russian Homefront: War of the Regents
  Regent Czarina Maria Augusta was taking no chances in the start of the new year, ordering a mass mobilization of Russian manpower for the Great Eastern War. Facing hostile powers to the north, west, and south, she decided to mobilize 300k additional men in 1839 both for reinforcements and eventual campaigns. Yet, her rule would be somewhat undermined by events in St. Petersburg.
   While the government in Moscow had labeled the Scandinavian-backed regent in St. Petersburg “the False Alexander,” that did not stop many from watching the events in that city. Alexander’s government was decisive in announcing wide-reaching reforms including the immediate abolition of serfdom throughout Russia, a move deliberately designed to weaken the foundations of the Moscow government. Promises to free the serfs created disunity and confusion all throughout the Empire. Peasants found themselves forced to choose between a government pushing nationalism and demanding forced service far away from their families or an alternative regency, albeit one with far less legitimacy, promising freedom and reform. Although no open revolts erupted as a result of the St. Petersburg Decrees (yet, at least) it did damage the recruitment of Russian soldiers, only 260k of the planned 300 being raised by the end of the year. The remaining men had widely evaded conscription.
   The War of the Two Regents was ignited by further Scandinavian action, supported by Russian auxiliaries loyal to Alexander. The Battle of Lake Ilmen saw the remainder of the Russian Army of St. Petersburg crushed before it could fully regroup and receive reinforcements. Czarina Maria Augusta was alleged to have fainted when news reached her of the setback here. When she awoke, in a fury, she ordered the deployment of a new field army in the theater. Further Scandinavian gains were made in Karelia and Murmansk, where the small Russian garrisons were forced to retreat in the face of the attack.
   A major propaganda victory was won for the Moscow government in March, when Grand Duke Peter and the remainder of the Russian Baltic fleet landed at Konigsberg. Their hasty retreat south had only succeeded once it became clear to the Scandinavians that the Prussians were also sending ships to aid the Grand Duke’s escape. Arriving in Berlin just after the Battle of Luneburg, Grand Duke Peter vocally declared his support for his mother’s regency until he could return and denounced the “impostor” in St. Petersburg, news which was spready widely throughout Russia by his mother’s supporters.  

Ottoman Campaigns
  The Ottomans sought to follow up on their success in 1838 by launching an aggressive campaign throughout southern Russia. The Ottoman Army of the Northern Caucus struck north, aiming at a quick seizure of Astrakhan. The Russians in the region, the remaining 37k who had survived the Turkish onslaught of the previous year, withdrew from the city without a shot being fired, perhaps waiting for reinforcements. It was at this juncture that Ottoman aid was sent to the Turkish tribes, seeking to incite rebellions against the Russian Empire.
   The 25k Ottomans in the Army of Crimea pushed back the meagre 6k Russian defenders early in the year, seeking to sow havoc across Ukraine and disrupt any supply lines to Transylvania. Here Maria Augusta sought to turn the tide of the war in the south, sending 100k men to crush the Turks. The Cossacks of the region, who likewise deplored the return of Muslim raiders to the steppe, joined the Russians for the Battle of Kherson, where the bulk of the Ottoman army was defeated and forced back to Crimea, the Russians seeking to secure the area and an offensive back into Crimea now possible in 1840.

Persian Betrayal
  The Qajars had promised the Ottomans that they would join the struggle against the seemingly vulnerable regency of Moscow, going as far to promise men for joint action. This was all deceit, Mohammed Shah Qajar crossing the Ottoman frontier in a hostile act and launching two offensives into the largely vulnerable and lightly-defended Mesopotamia region after word arrived that the Turks had seized Astrakhan. The Persians dashed towards Lake Van, hoping to cut off any Ottoman chance of providing further relief to Iraq once news of their betrayal had spread. Ottoman garrisons light and caught off-guard could do little but surrender as the enemy poured into the region. A second offensive was launched into Iraq itself, the great city of Baghdad and much of the surrounding region easily being taken by the Persians.
   Hopes for a pro-Persian Kurdish rising were dashed when the Qajars announced that they hoped the Kurds would embrace Shi’ite Islam. Indeed, as the next stage of Ottoman-Turkish warfare began, it increasingly took on a confessional tone. A pre-arranged uprising of Arabic Shi’ites exploded in eastern Arabia, most of the soldiers in the region having been withdrawn by Istanbul for operations elsewhere. A second attempt at a Shia uprising in Yemen was crushed before it could get off the ground, but there would be gains seen in the deserts to the west of Iraq. By the end of the year the Ottoman populace was utterly outraged by the treachery of the Persians, this being the second time in three years they had attacked without warning. There was some criticism of the Sultan in this instance though, particularly over how he had left this potential front completely unmanned in order to strike north.

Turkish Rebellions and Durrani War
  The Persians had initiated the risings of the Uzbeki and Turkmen tribes in an effort to destabilize the rule of the Durrani in Central Asia. While this was successful, the indigenous population more than happy to throw of the yoke of tyranny, the sudden return of the alliance between Persia and Russia meant events soon got out of hand. Had not the Russians just crushed the Khan of Khiva and ended self-rule in the region? When news reached the region about the fall of Astrakhan and the Ottoman advance, that was all it took for the Turkish tribal rebellions to cross into Russian land. Though there were forts in the region, constructed by the Russians to be impervious to nomadic risings, much of the sparsely inhabited regions quickly joined the rising. Although this meant the splintering of the rebels into three factions: Kazakh, Turkmen, and Uzbek, the Turkish tribes appear united in their goal to become independent. They also seem to refuse to embrace either side in the Great Eastern War, still friendly with the Persians but likewise inspired by the Ottoman advances in the Caucuses. Given the hostility between their two friends, the Turkish tribes have instead emphasized their hostility towards Russia and the efforts by the Czar to force his alien culture down their throats. Still, Maria Augusta was not idle in the face of the rebellion, ordering a substantial force of men to deal with the tribes. Combining the Army of Astrakhan with reinforcements and inflicting a late defeat at the Battle of Gyzylgaya, ensuring the rebellion will not continue its northward advance.  
   To the east, many in Kabul would express great joy at news of the Persian attack on the Ottomans, as it now meant the Qajars would be forced to fight a two-front war. The Durrani had been dealt a series of blows in 1838, that was obvious, but their empire was not ready to surrender yet. The Qajar attempt to push further into Gwadar was repulsed, the Persians being driven back in the face of a determined defense. This breathing room allowed for the Durrani to also launch strikes, albeit unsuccessful ones, on the Turkish tribal rebels to the north, spreading fear and disorganization, although with little territorial gain.

War in Transylvania
  Despite their relative success in slowing the Russian invasion, the Austrian forces in Transylvania were gravely outnumbered and forced into a defensive posture as the winter snows began to melt and campaigning resumed. The 79k Russians drubbed the 33k Austrians at the Battle of Reps, forcing them to retreat further west. Yet, this victory was followed by news that, to the surprise of many, the Turks had crossed the Habsburg frontier with the permission of Vienna. The battered Austrian Army of Transylvania coupled with the Ottoman reinforcements numbered 130k against the 70k Russians, who found the enemy in between themselves and their homeland. In a series of engagements throughout August the Russian Army of Transylvania was systematically destroyed and eliminated, thousands of Russian soldiers being forced into captivity when the commanders finally gave of their struggle, surrendering at Praid when a last desperate attempt to cross over the Carpathians was defeated.

Polish-Ruthenian Conflict
  Prussian forces were bolstered by reinforcements from Radziwill and the Polish rebels early in the year. Coupled with the arrival of a substantial Russian army from the east, and the Austrian numerical disadvantage, the theater would see substantial gains for the alliance. Archduke Maximilian had orders from Vienna to adopt a defensive posture, prioritizing Galicia in the face of the enemy advance. This bold defense repelled the initial advance of Russians at the Battle of Kolomea, but was ultimately forced to flee back over the Carpathians, adopting a defensive posture in the mountains to keep the Russians on the other side.
   To the north, without a deliberate Habsburg defense, the Prussians captured Cracow and occupied the city. Polish resistance was light, the locals far more sympathetic to Radziwill and his talk of national liberation than the Habsburgs, who had intentionally courted the Ruthenians instead. By December the entirety of Austrian Galicia was held by Prussia, Poland, or Russia.

Greek Rebellion and Istanbul Incident
  The Prussian Suez garrison, that had secretly escaped, had been directed to Greece, where it served a pivotal role in changing the trajectory of the rebellion. Seemingly written off by the larger powers, a sense of despair had pervaded the Greek Revolution since 1838. The sudden arrival of Prussian soldiers, well-provisioned no less, turned the tide. At the Battle of Zeli the rebels launched an attack against the surprised Ottomans. The Sultan’s son, in charge of the war in this theater, was forced into a somewhat embarrassing retreat, his numbers suddenly on par with those of the Greek rebels. Although he could claim victory in Thessalonica, which surrendered to the Ottoman besiegers in November, the Greeks had regained both a sense of optimism and the military initiative in the region. There are already calls for more men to be sent to this region to end the Greek thoughts of independence once and for all.
   Although the Prussians from the Army of the Suez were able to escape reprisal before departing, those returning from Singapore and Borneo were not so lucky. Upon arrival at the Suez, Ottoman forces surrounded their vessels and arrested the 4k Prussian soldiers, sending them to captivity in Arabia alongside the Russian soldiers arrested last year. Although many in Berlin have expressed outrage at yet another power losing its rights to the Suez, the Austrians, French, British, and Scandinavians have done nothing about the clear precedent that has been set.
   Meanwhile, the city of Istanbul would become a hotbed of paranoia, intrigue, and mutual recriminations over the course of 1839, especially as word spread that the Persians had attacked in the east. This would peak on October 21st, 1839 during the “Istanbul Incident.” A Turkish mob struck out at the Greek minority, accusing them of sympathy for the rebels in Athens, the bloodletting ceased only by the personal intervention of the Sultan on the second day. In the palace, civilian and military officials accused one another of sympathy with the enemy. A pasha was found murdered in his apartments, while as a result an official in the department of foreign affairs was executed in the outskirts of the city. Though no open rising took place, this atmosphere of crisis was unnerving, especially in the face of recent successes in Astrakhan and Transylvania. Some would place the blame on foreign intervention and amplification of rumors, though no concrete evidence has been found indicating this to be the case. Still many of the Sultan’s advisors have been most unnerved by the changing mood of the capitol and have urge thorough investigation.

Great Bohemian Campaign
  The Austro-Prussian theater of war turned frantic in early 1839, as the Habsburgs realized the vulnerability of Vienna and the Prussians saw an opportunity in the distance between the Army of Bohemia and reinforcements. What followed was a rapid attempt at flight by the Army of Bohemia, fleeing in the face of a Prussian advance from Silesia dashing towards the capitol at breakneck pace only to be met with the full force of the nearly 300k strong Prussian armies pouring into Moravia. A massive Prussian assault was directed at the Austrians who were utterly defeated at the Battle of Trencin, the Habsburg ranks disorganized from the hasty attempt to save Vienna. Following the defeat, the Austrians (due on Prussian maneuvering) had nowhere to flee but northeast, their hastily constructed for along the Carpathians at Martin being besieged by the sizeable Prussian foe.
   While the loss of the Army of Bohemia, largely in totality, was a severe blow to the military numbers of the Habsburg Monarchy, it gave the Emperor in Vienna what he so desperately needed: time. As news of the defeat at Trencin spread, tens of thousands of men poured into Austria from Italy. The Army of Ansbach, after beating back a Prussian feint attack towards Bamberg and northern Bavaria likewise came to the aid of the Emperor, soldiers from western Germany not far behind. Coupled with the reinforcements raised, this meant that Emperor Francis now faced the invading Prussians with 330k men near Vienna, while the Prussians had roughly 275k, after factoring their losses at the Battle of Trencin.
   Still, Prussia morale was high after the elimination of the Habsburg Army of Bohemia. Unlike what Emperor Francis had expected, they made no hasty strike at Vienna, being far more deliberate in their operations southwards. Prussians marched south, some small battalions placing Pressburg under siege, while the rest of the Army crossed the Danube south of the city, placing themselves in between Buda and Vienna. It was here, in a fortuitous development for the Prussians, the heir to the Austrian throne, Archduke Charles of Austria was captured. His father had ordered him to go from Vienna to Buda in case the capitol fell, but en route his entourage was set on by Prussian scouts, who had been ordered to scour the road for any individuals fleeing the city. Charles faced the exact same fate as his great-grandfather Emperor Joseph a century ago, capture by the Prussians. Some in Berlin called for his immediate execution, in order to retaliate for what was believed to be Austrian responsibility for the death of King Frederick III. Scurried away north towards Prussian Silesia, the news sent a ripple of joy through the armies of young King Frederick. Many truly believed that history would repeat itself and Vienna would soon fall.
   Southeast of Vienna, the Austrians finally responded, eager to defend the capitol. The Prussian pursuit of the Army of Bohemia combined with orders to march at hasty speeds having given the Emperor time for his reinforcements to arrive. News had not yet reached the city that Archduke Charles had been captured. The 330k Austrians now sallied out to face against the 275k Prussians in one of the largest set battles thus far in European history at Sopron on August 10-13th, 1839.
   “God deplores man, otherwise he would have made us peaceful beings.” Those were the words Emperor Francis III expressed upon hearing of the Battle of Sopron and the deaths of tens of thousands. The massive armies faced off on the northern edge of the Pannonian Basin. Croatian General Josip Jelačić headed the Habsburg forces, while General Friedrich Graf von Wrangel headed the Prussian force. Von Wrangel was surprised by the number of Austrians, while many of the Habsburg soldiers were exhausted by their extensive march. This meant, despite the Austrian numerical advantage, the fight would largely be even. Hoping to force the enemy back into the capitol, Prussian commanders undertook a series of clever maneuvers, attempting to flank the Austrians and force the tired soldiers to break. Although this had some initial success, the too-zealous attacking of some Prussian battalions placed them into the range of Habsburg artillery. The slog continued all throughout the day, the field a smoky mess as the two German realms smashed their manpower into each other’s.
   The inconclusive results of the first day meant the fighting dragged on into a second. A Habsburg offensive on the morning of the 12th was beat back by the Prussians, who now were in defensive posture, having seized the outskirts of Sopron the previous day. Fighting on the second day was notable for the extensive number of casualties and the lowering of morale on both sides. Fires raged throughout the region, the sparks of gunpowder igniting dry brush and making the area look like a hellscape.
   Finally, after a third morning of a slog, it was decided by General von Wrangel in the Prussian camp that victory could not be achieved at this juncture. Seeing the Austrians gaining ground in the early hours, and fearing that the way back across the Danube would be blocked, an organized, fighting retreat was ordered. The Prussians slowly retreated, fighting moving from Sopron to Csnorna to Gyor over the next week. Once the Prussians crossed the Danube, returning to the now captured city of Pressburg, the Austrian armies returned to the capitol.
   Although the Austrians celebrated the protection of the capitol, a Te Deum being sung in the churches of Vienna, the war is not won. Poland and Galicia are in enemy hands. Archduke Charles now sits in enemy custody, some suggesting a hostage exchange between him and Czar Peter in Scandinavia. The Rhenish have made gains and further afield Russia is trying to mobilize itself into a formidable juggernaut.

War in the Rhineland
  The Austrians withdrew roughly half of the almost 200k men they had operating against the Kingdom of the Rhine. It was clear quite early in the year that some sort of truce had been enacted between Cologne and Berlin, for the Rhenish turned south, withdrawing from Hanover, and attempting to counter the Habsburg gains of 1838. Ordered to defend the remaining Imperial Princes over any land regained in the previous year, the Austrians beat back a strike at Ansbach but allowed the rebels to get as far south as Stuttgart, where the King returned to his family’s capitol to great fanfare, the damage of the previous two years being conveniently ignored.

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Spamage
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« Reply #176 on: September 12, 2020, 05:53:24 pm »
« Edited: September 12, 2020, 06:14:05 pm by Spamage »

Invasion of the Netherlands
  The Dutch seizure of East Frisia, coupled with the refusal of the military junta to abide by the stipulations in the Treaty of Amsterdam, invited reprisal from the larger powers of Europe, particularly France and Prussia. Some question if the hawks in Amsterdam were not deliberately goading their neighbors for war given the haste with which they took military action following the deposition of King William II. Whatever the case, they would soon be met with mass assault, armies crossing the Rhine from France and into East Frisia from Prussia.
   The French attacked first, the 248k strong Army of Flanders crossing the Rhine. The Dutch were prepared, having previously mobilized for a planned offensive further into Northern Germany. They raised the entirety of their civilian forces, 202k men in the Netherlands proper. This southern front was seen as a matter of life-and-death in the Dutch provinces, given the French treatment of the Flemish to the south and violation of the Treaty of Amsterdam (even if the agreement had been made with the toppled government). Thousands of men enlisted as volunteers, hoping to preserve the independence of their homeland in the face of the third French invasion of the Netherlands in a century.
   Fighting was widespread and brutal. Although the French had been explicitly ordered to be gentle to the populace, the people were most certainly not gentle to the French. Hatred of King Louis and all he represented was widespread. There were even reports from towns such as Tiel and Elst of armed women and children sniping French soldiers, aiming for officers. General Bugeaud, who had been ordered by King Louis XVIII in one of his last acts to serve as commander, himself took a bullet wound to the shoulder, the shot allegedly fired by a Dutch milkmaid. The farmers in Gelderland and Zeeland, Catholic and Protestant alike, agreed to break the dikes and flood the countryside, slowing the invasion and any march towards Amsterdam. Roads and bridges were intentionally sabotaged, as prepared defensive lines faced off against the French advance.
   The fighting was reminiscent of the Ottoman-Egyptian clashes on the Nile Delta in the mid-1830s. The inundated land was only seized with great difficulty. Shadow partisan networks in Flanders, the skeleton of what once had been the rebel movement there, demonstrated sympathy with the Dutch by undertaking covert activities, seeking to slow the French war effort. Although some French commanders were effective in countering them, particularly those that had experience in Burma, the vast Flemish civilian population proved more than willing to provide cover and concealment for the partisans in their ranks. Yet, at the years end, with tens of thousands killed on both sides, the French had made gains in the Netherlands and not vice versa. Though British naval aid against the Netherlands never materialized, and Amsterdam still stood defiant, the French remain able to replace their casualties, while the Dutch really cannot.
   A second strike arrived from the north in July, the Prussians smashing back into East Frisia, eager to restore the German League member that had been unjustly assaulted. Meeting token Dutch resistance, most of the forces fighting the French to the south, the advance proved fairly easy and casualties were initially light. Within several weeks they were as far as Groningen. Here too, the British did not appear as had been planned, causing confusion in the Prussian ranks. As news spread of the events to the east, including the fall of Hamburg and the cutting-off of this army from Prussia proper, that confusion turned to inaction. Rather than take any initiative, especially without contact with Berlin, the Prussian commanders fell into mutual recriminations and internal disputes.

War in the East Indies
  As news spread abroad of the fight in the Netherlands, the OAKF was initially unsure how to respond. The government pledged initial neutrality in the early stages of the conflict, though warning both the French and the Prussians that they would fully seek to defend their presence in the region unconditionally. Many have noted significant troop movements in the region as the colonial authorities have prepared themselves for a defensive conflict.
   The Ottomans sent an expedition to Singapore, likewise determined to seize the port city in response to former Prussian aggression. The Prussian garrison having evacuated, again ostensibly to the French, the city easily fell to the Turks, who set about restoring control and expunging the remnants of Prussian influence. It was the former Prussian armies from the East Indies that were captured at the Suez later in the year.

Scandinavian Assault
  Prussia and Scandinavia have long been friends, their governments enjoying extensive dynastic and political ties over the last century. No more. The late King Frederick’s decision to violate the Convention of Prague outraged the government in Stockholm, which elected to punish Prussia and come to the aid of the Habsburgs, despite the ongoing conflict with the Russians to the east. 100k Scandinavians assembled in Jutland and smashed their way south when word arrived that the Prussians had officially retaken East Frisia and were conducting operations further into the Netherlands.
   This is not to say Prussia was totally unprepared, though it was perhaps a bit underprepared. The 75k men left by Queen Regent Augusta were repulsed at the Battle of Kellinghusen, fleeing south as the Scandinavians marched into the Kingdom. Hamburg, the major Prussian port city and gateway to that realm’s colonial empire, fell in days, being occupied by the Swedes. What followed was a quick dash west, knocking out the remainder of Oldenburg and cutting off the Prussian expedition to the Netherlands, and then a push eastward. Although there was some Scandinavian hope about taking Berlin, the Prussians held their own at the Battle of Luneburg and high command elected to march east instead. The forces of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz proved insufficient to defend their small principalities, the sovereigns fleeing to Berlin as Rostock too was seized by the Scandinavians. As the year came to a close, Scandinavian soldiers were as far east as Stralsund and Greifswald, a major success having been achieved in northern Prussia.
   Prussian agents attempted to ignite a separatist rebellion in Schleswig-Holstein once news spread of the Scandinavian attack, but a combination of increased military presence and tough policing of the residence meant any opposition was forced underground, trying intrigue and sabotage instead of any sort of armed conflict. The German minority party elected to the government in Stockholm has denounced the move of the Scandinavian government, but their representatives have often been shouted down as enemy sympathizers since the fighting began.
   The bravery of the Prussian soldiers ensured that Berlin was saved, though a new dilemma faces Queen Regent Augusta with the loss of Hanover. Prussia, for all intents and purposes, is cut off from its colonies. The Scandinavians have sealed the straits to any Prussian and Russian ships, the Habsburgs remain hostile to the south, and, while Russia is friendly in the east, there is little practical way for Prussian trade and communication to reach their colonies from there.


Empires of the East
Korea and Japan Look Outwards, China Pushes Inland
(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Korean Empire in the Pacific
  The government of Queen Regent Sunwon had been very cautious and deliberate in its colonial policy during the first years of her regency. Yet, with the collapse of Spanish power and the extended duration of the Chinese Civil War, her officials were able to secure a wide variety of diplomatic coups in 1839, ensuring that her grandson will take power in a Korea well-equipped to compete with the imperialist powers of the 19th century.
   From their base north of the Philippines in the Batanes, Korean officials coordinated a strike outwards into the heart of the Pacific. Cooperating with local Polynesian officials and leaders, weapons and regiments of marines were sent to the Caroline Islands, occupying the region and establishing the local collaborators as Grand Dukes under the sovereignty of the Joseon Dynasty. The transition was relatively bloodless, though the results may have been more drastic than expected. Taking advantage of their Korean-backing the new vassals engaged in rapid and brutal conquest of their traditional rivals as the Koreans looked on. By the end of the year most of the island chain has either sworn fealty to Joseon or been occupied by those who do.
  Korea’s other successful venture for expansion in Manchuria was, in truth, at risk during the first half of the year. The Prince of Beizi demonstrated every inclination of continuing the struggle against the Koreans and Xing, confident in his ability to play defense on friendly terrain against two very different enemies. Yet, it would not come to this. His underlings saw the writing on the wall and, in the hopes of a pardon from Nanjing, or perhaps even some sort of local autonomy, assassinated the last Qing ruler in the world.
   The reaction to the death of the Prince of Beizi created an atmosphere of jubilation across the east. At long last the civil war in China proper was over. Although fighting would continue in the west, as the Emperor sought to bring the separatists in that region to heel.

Restoring Sovereignty: China in the West
  Following the death of the Prince of Beizi, and the subjugation of the Manchurian nobility, the Youfu Emperor issued an ultimatum to the various separatist groups in the west and south of China. The local leaders could either recognize the authority of the new dynasty directly or face elimination. Tibet, which had stayed out of the recent conflicts in order to preserve its position as best possible, consented to return to vassal status with the government in Nanjing. The Xinjiang province in the far west, unwilling to face direct rule from China, instead reached an emergency agreement with Czarina Regent Maria Augusta in Moscow, promising to swear nominal allegiance and aid the crushing of their fellow Turks in return for Russia protection. The Hui and Miao, on the other hand, formed an alliance of convenience and together executed the Xing envoys sent to demand their subjugation. They had reason to be optimistic. Since the start of the Chinese Civil War, more than 30 million Han subjects had died due to famine, warfare, flooding, and disease. It was thought in Chengdu and Lanzhou that the people of the realm would be too exhausted to undertake further expeditions for quite some time. War commenced.
   The experience and advanced weaponry of the Xing Dynasty would again be demonstrated in 1839, the Youfu Emperor’s soldiers pushing easily into rebel-held territory. The Miao would bear the brunt of the Xing advance, their forces were pushed back repeatedly as the Han moved up the Yangtze, Chengdu itself placed under siege as the situation began to look increasingly desperate. Local peasant leaders, taking advantage of the anarchy, have sought to frustrate the operations of both governments, adding yet another layer to the chaos.
   In the west the Hui would not be defeated on the field, but would find themselves frustrated by a deliberate Xing effort to construct outposts in the region and slowly reassert control. No decisive battle took place here, the focus of the war being in the south, but many in the region have suddenly become worried about the prospects of their war effort.

Coup of Natsu
  Tokugawa Ieyoshi had come to power in a divided Japan, one where the modernizers and traditionalists each had a clear agenda for how his rule ought to progress. Rather than seeking to balance the various interests, as his father had done, Ieyoshi made it clear quite early on that he intended to continue the increasing advancement of the realm.
   Some suspect he was so deliberately open about his favoritism to the modernizers in order to invite reprisal, which came swiftly. A cabal of daimyo began to organize in secret, plotting on murdering the Shogun and destroying the Tokugawa dynasty by restoring Imperial Power. The Emperor himself was not involved, determined to remain above factionalism and more accustomed to the simple life at the Imperial Capitol. Still, it was expected there was broad support among the conservative leadership, which sought to align itself with those peasants upset by Ienari’s decision to raise their taxes.
   This plot was abruptly interrupted on September 5th, 1839 in the Coup of Natsu (summer). Within the span of a week, the various conspirators were arrested in quick succession, those not gathered in the first wave of arrests committing suicide rather than face the slander of the central government. Accused of sedition and hostility towards the government, the several dozen officials were executed one after another in a seen of great dishonor. Some of these men had served his father for decades and were well-respected members of Japanese society, their sudden disgrace and death sending shockwaves throughout Japan.
   The traditionalist movement was quickly beat back and driven underground by the decisive action of Ieyoshi, who followed up on his victory over the conspirators by ordering the campaign in the Philippines. Seemingly securing his rule from the outset, and preventing the eruption of a civil war in the shogunate, many now wonder what new direction he will take Japan. Certainly, his broader government has been seen as largely successful in foreign affairs thus far. The Xing Dynasty, for now focused on restoring order to the western provinces, agreed to cede the trade ports taken from the Qing in the mid-1830s as well as recognized the Japanese-backed Republic of Formosa on that island. It appears that Japan will be a major player in the Asia-Pacific region in the coming decades, the prospect of returning to its past state of isolationism having been prevented once and for all.

Japanese Strike on the Philippines
  Knowing full-well that the East Asian Colonial Federation (OAKF) was distracted by events in Europe, Ieyoshi ended 1839 by launching an invasion of the Philippines, which had already changed hands once in the past year. The Dutch forces in Asia had largely neglected the islands in the aftermath of their victory, more focused on organizing their power in the East Indies. From Formosa, the Shogunate launched a series of invasions, seizing control over the remaining Dutch outposts in the South China Sea, capturing Manila and the northern islands of the Philippines, and winning control as far south as Palawan. The Dutch have shown little appetite to defend the islands that most still consider to be nominally Spanish and it is expected that the southern islands will fall in 1840 barring aid from some other foreign power.
   This aggressive strike against the Dutch has demonstrated Japan’s growing power in the region. With control of the home islands and Formosa secured, the push south has opened up the prospect of further territorial acquisitions in the coming years. For a public eager for victory, this could be too good of an opportunity to ignore.
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« Reply #177 on: September 12, 2020, 07:25:19 pm »
« Edited: September 18, 2020, 04:24:25 am by True Federalist (진정한 연방 주의자) »

조선 법원 선포
Proclamations of the Court of Joseon

(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Queen Regent Sunwon in accordance with the advice of the advisors of her grandson King Heonjong, announces on this Seollol of the seventh year of his reign (1840) the following:

Local Government Act, 7 Heonjong
1. The ten provinces (도 do) of the Joseon Kingdom and their capitals shall be as follows:
  • Chungcheong (충청) [capital Gongju (공주)]
  • Dumanju (투멘주) [capital Hwanhang (환항)]
  • Gangwon (강원) [capital Wonju (원주)]
  • Gyeonggi (경기) [capital Hanseong (한성)]
  • Gyeongsang (경상) [capital Daegu (대구)]
  • Hamgyeong (함경) [capital Hamheung (함흥)]
  • Hwanghae (황해) [capital Haeju (해주)]
  • Jeju (제주) [capital Jeju City (제주시)]
  • Jeolla (전라) [capital Jeonju (전주)]
  • Pyeongan (평안) [capital Pyeongyan (평양)]
The provinces shall be administered by governors (지사 jisa) who shall be appointed by and serve at the pleasure of the king. (For clarity or other reasons they may also be referred to as provincial governors [도지사 dojisa].)They will report to the Minister of State, but may appeal to the king if they disagree with a decision of the Minister of State. To assist him, each governor shall have a deputy governor (부지사 bujisa) who shall be a member of the civil service.

2. Each province shall be subdivided into second-level territories called districts (구 gu). Predominantly rural districts shall also be called counties (군 gun). Predominantly urban districts shall also be called cities (시 si). The administration of each district shall be placed in the responsibility of a district governor (구지사 gujisa) who shall be a member of the civil service. Districts and district boundaries shall be created, disestablished, or altered at the discretion of the Minister of State for ease of administration, save that changes shall always take effect at the beginning of a year and have been promulgated at least three months in advance.

3. Each district shall be subdivided into third-level territories called townships (면 myeon). Urban townships that are located in counties shall also be called towns (읍 eup). Urban townships that are located in cities shall also be called neighborhoods (동 dong). The administration of each district shall be placed in the responsibility of a township governor (면지사 myeonjisa) who shall be a member of the civil service. Townships and township boundaries shall be created, disestablished, or altered at the discretion of the provincial governor for ease of administration, save that changes shall always take effect at the beginning of a year and have been promulgated at least two months in advance.

4. The national capital of Seoul (서울) shall consist of the royal palaces, temples, barracks, and other structures essential to the operation of the royal court located in Hanseong. The administration of each district shall be placed in the responsibility of a capital governor (서울지사 Seouljisa) who shall be appointed by be appointed by and serve at the pleasure of the king. To assist him, the capital governor shall have a deputy capital governor (부서울지사 bu-Seouljisa) who shall be a part of the civil service. The capital shall be directly administered as if it were a province, except that for ease of administration, the Minister of State may order particular government functions to be handled as if it were a neighborhood of the city of Hanseong or a city of the province of Gyeonggi.

5. Townships may optionally have one or more villages (리 ri) recognized within them for ease of administration, but are not required to have any, or to be completely subdivided into villages for villages to exist in the district. Villages and village boundaries shall be created, disestablished, or altered at the discretion of the provincial governor for ease of administration, save that changes shall always take effect at the beginning of a year and have been promulgated at least one month in advance.

Local Ministries Act, 7 Heonjong
1. This act supersedes the relevant portions of the Edict Concerning the Ministries and Provinces,  2 Heonjong, after which that edict will have been completely superseded by later legislation.

2. Those in charge of ministry functions at the provincial level shall be known as provincial ministers (도장관 dojanggwan), and shall be appointed by and serve at the pleasure of the king. They shall oversee ministry performance within a particular province and shall be subordinate to both their minister and their governor. They shall attempt to resolve conflicting instructions from their superiors and if unable to secure harmony from their superiors shall bring the matter to the attention of the Minister of State for resolution.

2. Those in charge of ministry functions at the provincial level shall be known as provincial ministers (도장관 dojanggwan), and shall be appointed by and serve at the pleasure of the king. They shall oversee ministry performance within a particular province and shall be subordinate to both their minister and their governor. They shall attempt to resolve conflicting instructions from his superiors and if unable to secure harmony from his superiors shall bring the matter to the attention of the Minister of State for resolution. To assist him, each provincial minister shall have a deputy provincial minister(부도장관 budoajnggwan) who shall be a member of the civil service.

3. Those in charge of ministry functions at the district level shall be known as district ministers (구장관 gujanggwan), and shall be members of the civil service. They shall oversee ministry performance within a particular district and shall be subordinate to both their provincial minister and their district governor. They shall attempt to resolve conflicting instructions from his superiors and if unable to secure harmony from his superiors shall bring the matter to the attention of his provincial governor for resolution.

4. Those in charge of ministry functions at the township level shall be known as township ministers (면장관 myeongjanggwan), and shall be members of the civil service. They shall oversee ministry performance within a particular township and shall be subordinate to both their district minister and their township governor. They shall attempt to resolve conflicting instructions from his superiors and if unable to secure harmony from his superiors shall bring the matter to the attention of his district governor for resolution.

Criminal Courts Act, 7 Heonjong
1. The county Criminal Courts referred to in the Ministry of Justice Act, 6 Heonjong are to be called district Criminal Courts, with a district Criminal Court to be established in each district. They shall have original jurisdiction over misdemeanors only.

2. The provincial Criminal Courts referred to in the Ministry of Justice Act, 6 Heonjong shall be established in each province and shall have original jurisdiction in all felonies and appellate jurisdiction over the district Criminal Courts. Each provincial Criminal Court shall have at least three justicars.

3. The Supreme Criminal Court referred to in the Ministry of Justice Act, 6 Heonjong shall have appellate jurisdiction over the provincial Criminal Courts, and consist of one justicar from each of the ten provinces, plus a Chief Justicar who may be from any province.

4. In the case of criminal cases arising in the criminal courts of the Duchy of Outer Manchuria, the Supreme Criminal Court shall have appellate jurisdiction only in cases arising under the laws of the Joseon realm or of the Duchy of Outer Manchuria. Cases arising under the laws of Zhungguo shall instead be appealed to the appropriate court established by Zhungguo to hear such appeals, save that if no such court be established, the Supreme Criminal Court may hear appeals.

5. Criminal courts that consist of multiple justicars may establish procedures for when cases should be heard by a single justicar, a panel of justicars, or by all of the justicars of that court, save that in any appellate case, there shall never be less than three justicars assigned.

6. In any criminal case in which a sentence of death has been handed down, sentence may not be executed until all appeals have been exhausted and a writ of execution has been issued by the Minister of Justice and sealed by the Minister of State.

Civil Courts Act, 7 Heonjong
1. There shall be established a Bureau of Torts within the Ministry of Commerce. The bureau, in conjunction with the Ministry of Personnel, shall appoint judges to preside over the Supreme Civil Court, the provincial Civil Courts, and the district Civil Courts. Each judge shall also hire subsidiary personnel such as bailiffs, marshals, and clerks deemed necessary for the operation of his court, save that for courts with multiple judges, the chief justice of that court shall do so for the entire court.

2. There is to be established a district Civil Court in each district. They shall have original jurisdiction in cases with less than one hundred nyang in silver coin in dispute.

3. There is to be established a provincial Civil Court in each province. They shall have original jurisdiction in cases with one hundred nyang or more in silver coin in dispute and appellate jurisdiction over the district Civil Courts. Each provincial Civil Court shall have at least three judges.

4. The Supreme Civil Court shall have appellate jurisdiction over the provincial Civil Courts, and consist of one judge from each of the ten provinces, plus one from the Duchy of Outer Manchuria, plus a Chief Judge who may be from any province.

5. In the case of civil cases arising in the civil courts of the Duchy of Outer Manchuria, the Supreme Civil Court shall have final appellate jurisdiction only in cases arising under the laws of the Joseon realm or of the Duchy of Outer Manchuria. Cases arising under the laws of Zhungguo may be appealed to the appropriate court established by Zhungguo to hear such appeals, save that if no such court be established, the Supreme Civil Court shall have final jurisdiction. If the case involves only the civil law of Zhungguo, a civil appellant from the Civil Court of the Duchy of Outer Manchuria may choose to appeal directly to the appropriate court established by Zhungguo to hear such appeals or to the Supreme Civil Court.

6. Civil courts that consist of multiple judges may establish procedures for when cases should be heard by a single judge, a panel of judges, or by all of the judges of that court, save that in any appellate case, there shall never be less than three judges assigned.

Chancery Courts Act, 7 Heonjong
1. There shall be established a Bureau of Probate within the Ministry of State. The bureau, in conjunction with the Ministry of Personnel, shall appoint chancellors to preside over the Supreme Chancery Court, the provincial Chancery Courts, and the district Chancery Courts. Each chancellor shall also hire subsidiary personnel such as bailiffs, marshals, and clerks deemed necessary for the operation of his court, save that for courts with multiple chancellors, the chief chancellor of that court shall do so for the entire court.

2. There is to be established a district Chancery Court in each district. They shall have original jurisdiction in overseeing estates and trusts that hold real property solely within that district at their establishment.

3. There is to be established a provincial Chancery Court in each province. They shall have original jurisdiction in overseeing estates and trusts that hold real property solely within that province at their establishment, but not within a single district, and appellate jurisdiction over the district Chancery Courts. Each provincial Civil Chancery Court shall have at least three chancellors.

4. The Supreme Chancery Court shall have appellate jurisdiction over the provincial Chancery Courts, and consist of one chancellor from each of the ten provinces, plus one from the Duchy of Outer Manchuria, plus a Chief Chancellor who may be from any province. In the case of estates and trusts with real property in multiple provinces, the Supreme Chancery Court shall assign which provincial Chancery Court shall oversee the estate or trust.

5. In the case of chancery cases arising in the chancery courts of the Duchy of Outer Manchuria, the Supreme Civil Court shall have final appellate jurisdiction only in cases arising under the laws of the Joseon realm or of the Duchy of Outer Manchuria. Cases arising under the laws of Zhungguo may be appealed to the appropriate court established by Zhungguo to hear such appeals, save that if no such court be established, the Supreme Chancery Court shall have final jurisdiction. If the case involves only the chancery law of Zhungguo, a chancery appellant from the Chancery Court of the Duchy of Outer Manchuria may choose to appeal directly to the appropriate court established by Zhungguo to hear such appeals or to the Supreme Chancery Court.

6. Chancery courts that consist of multiple chancellors may establish procedures for when cases should be heard by a single chancellor, a panel of chancellors, or by all of the chancellors of that court, save that in any appellate proceeding., there shall never be less than three chancellors assigned.

7. In addition to overseeing the administration of estates and trusts, all transfers of real property shall be recorded by the county chancery court of the county in which the real property is located.

Township Councils Act, 7 Heonjong
1. To obtain input from the people of each township, it is ordained that each subject who has his principal household within that district and who owns taxable property located in that township worth at least 10 gwan of coin silver (100 nyang of coin silver) and has reached at least his thirtieth year of life (age 29 or greater by Western reckoning) shall be deemed an elector of the township council.

2. Each township shall establish a council consisting of seven councilors elected by the electors  of that township on an annual basis from among the electors of that township.

3. The township council shall at its first meeting of the year choose from among its members a township mayor (면장 myeonjang) to serve as the leader of the council and be the member of the council who regularly interacts with the township governor (면지사 myeonjisa)  of that township.

4. The township council shall advise the township minister of the concerns and suggestions that the people of that township have concerning the good governance of the township.  They shall not be punished in any manner for bringing such concerns or suggestions to the attention of the township minister.

5. Subject to such regulations as the Minister of State may promulgate, a township governor may delegate the supervision of certain government functions and policies for that township to the township council, with the understanding that such delegation may not be for a term of greater than one year.

6.  To compensate them for their service, councilors shall receive a stipend of one don of silver coin per month, but neither they nor any members of their households shall be eligible for any other remuneration from the government during their service as councilors.

(post edited to make a small technical correction)
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« Reply #178 on: September 12, 2020, 07:28:55 pm »

조선 정부의 선포
Proclamations of the Government of Joseon

(Source: self-made)

The Bureau of Railways announces that in this year of 7 Heonjong, in addition to maintaining the current railways, there shall be constructed the following railways:
  • Suwon to Gongju
  • Gincheong to Daejong
  • Hanseong (aka Seoul) to Wonju
  • Kaesong to Sariwon
  • Pyeongyang to Anju
  • Hoeryeong  to Musan

With the aforementioned constructions, the list of operating and planned railways of the Bureau of Railways will be:
Line 1: Hanseong (aka Seoul) to Incheon
Line 2: Hanseong (aka Seoul) to Suwon to Gongju to Daejong to Gimcheong to Daegu to Busan
Line 21: Daejong to Jeonju to Gunsan

Line 3:Hanseong (aka Seoul) to Wonju to Donghae

Line 4: Hanseong (aka Seoul) to Kaesong to Sariwon to Pyeongyang to Anju to Kanggye to Manpo to Chunggang to Junggyeong to Ningguta, Outer Manchuria
Line 41: Kaesong to Haeju to Sariwon
Line 42: Line 42W & (Manpo to Chunggang of Line 4) & Line 42E
Line 42W: Sinuiji to Manpo
Line 42E: Chunggang to Hyesan to Musan to Hoeryeong to Raeson

Line 50: Nampo to Pyeongyang to Kangdong to Gowan

Line 60: Donghae to Gangneung to Sokcho to Wonsan to Gowon to Hamheung to Seongjin to Cheongjin to Raeson to Hwanhang

Line 70: Sinuiji to Anju to Kangdong to Gowon

(Italics indicate railways that should be in operation by the end of the year. The above is not an exhaustive list of railway stations.)



The Bureau of Public Health announces that in this year of 7 Heonjong, the Joseon realm shall begin an eight-year plan to eliminate the scourge of smallpox from the realm.

1. Effective immediately, all persons entering the Joseon realm or any entrepôt, protectorate, or grand duchy subject to the suzerainty of the Joseon realm, shall either present proof of having been vaccinated against smallpox, present proof of having suffered from smallpox, or be vaccinated against smallpox before entry into the Joseon customs territory.

2. All military and civil servants of the Joseon realm shall by the end of this year shall either  present proof of having been vaccinated against smallpox, present proof of having suffered from smallpox, or be vaccinated against smallpox.

3.  By the end of the year 8 Heonjong, all students attending any institution under the purview of the Bureau of Schools shall for themselves and all members of their immediate household either present proof of having been vaccinated against smallpox, present proof of having suffered from smallpox, or be vaccinated against smallpox.

3.  By the end of the year 9 Heonjong, all students attending any institution under the purview of the Bureau of Colleges shall for themselves and all members of their immediate household either present proof of having been vaccinated against smallpox, present proof of having suffered from smallpox, or be vaccinated against smallpox.

4.  By the end of the year 10 Heonjong, all students attending any institution under the purview of the Bureau of Academies or the Bureau of Universities shall for themselves and all members of their immediate household either present proof of having been vaccinated against smallpox, present proof of having suffered from smallpox, or be vaccinated against smallpox.

5. By the end of the year 11 Heonjong, any person receiving bounties of grain or lentils under the Edict Concerning Basic Foodstuffs, 5 Heonjong shall for themselves and all members of their immediate household either present proof of having been vaccinated against smallpox, present proof of having suffered from smallpox, or be vaccinated against smallpox.

6. By the end of the year 14 Heonjong, any person resident in the Joseon realm shall for themselves and all members of their immediate household either present proof of having been vaccinated against smallpox, present proof of having suffered from smallpox, or be vaccinated against smallpox.

7. Vaccinations shall be provided free of charge by the Bureau of Public Health to all residents and visitors to the Joseon realm, with priority being  given to those who are required by this regulation to present proof of having been vaccinated against smallpox, present proof of having suffered from smallpox, or be vaccinated against smallpox by the end of that current year.
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« Reply #179 on: September 13, 2020, 09:48:31 am »
« Edited: September 18, 2020, 04:31:10 am by True Federalist (진정한 연방 주의자) »

조선 정부의 선포
Proclamations of the Government of Joseon

(Source: self-made)

The Bureau of Ducal Relations is pleased to announce that in this year of 7 Heonjong, grand duchies acknowledging the suzerainty of the Joseon realm have been recognized in the Heonjong Islands. (Known to the Spanish who formerly claimed those islands without having any actual presence there as the Caroline Islands.) From west to east, these are the Grand Duchies of Pallau (팔라우), of Yapeu (야프) of Chukeu (추크), of Ponpei (폰페이), and of Koseula-e (코스라에).

As far as precedence in court functions, these grand duchies along with the existing Grand Duchy of Bataneseu (바타네스), shall be ranked according to the date the grand duke thereof acknowledged the suzerainty of the Joseon realm.
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« Reply #180 on: September 13, 2020, 09:31:16 pm »

조선 법원 선포
Proclamations of the Court of Joseon

(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Queen Regent Sunwon in accordance with the advice of the advisors of her grandson King Heonjong, announces on this Daeboreum of the seventh year of his reign (1840) the following:

Games and Fairs Act, 7 Heonjong
1. There is to be established a Bureau of Festivals in the Ministry of Rites, whose purpose shall be to organize annual competitions celebrating the physical, artistic, and agricultural achievements by the people of the Joseon realm.

2. In each district, there shall be games held held at its principal city ending on Dano in which prizes shall be given for the best performance in the following physical events:
  • 1 jeong sprint (~109 m)
  • 2 jeong sprint (~218 m)
  • 1 jeong hurdles(~109 m)
  • 1 ri hurdles (~ 393 m)
  • 1 ri run (~ 393 m)
  • 2 ri run (~ 785 m)
  • 5 ri run (~ 1963 m)
  • 10 ri run (~ 3727 m)
  • 20 ri run (~ 7854 m)
  • long jump
  • taekgyeon (unarmed martial arts)
  • ssireum (wrestling)
  • gungsul (archery)
  • geomsul (swordsmanship)
  • changsul (spearmanship)
  • weightlifting

2. In each district, there shall be a fair held at its principal city ending on Chuseok in which prizes shall be given for the best of various kinds of horticultural produce and, for the best of various animal breeds.

3. In each district, there shall be a festival held held at its principal city ending on Jungyangjeol in which prizes shall be given for the best of various culinary dishes, and various forms of art.

4. In each province, there shall be games held at its capital ending  on Chilseok where the top performers of the district games of that province held earlier that year shall be invited to participate.

5. In each province, there shall be a fair held at its capital ending on Jungyangjeol where the top performers of the district fairs of that province held earlier that year be invited to participate.

6. In each province, there shall be a festival held at its capital ending on the tenth day of the tenth month where the top performers of the district festivals of that province held earlier that year shall be invited to participate.

7. There shall be games held at Hanseong ending on the eleventh day of the eleventh month where the top performers of the provincial games held earlier that year shall be invited to participate.

8.There shall be a fair held at Hanseong ending on the eleventh day of the eleventh month where the top performers of the provincial fairs held earlier that year be invited to participate.

9. There shall be a festival at Hanseong held on the twelfth day of the twelfth month where the top performers of the provincial festivals of that province held earlier that year shall be invited to participate.
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« Reply #181 on: September 14, 2020, 12:04:29 am »

Age of Steam And Steel
Turn 6: 1840
(Source: Self-Made)

Nations, Leaders, and Players
Kingdom of France: Queen Regent Marie Fernandina d'Berry Bourbon (Windjammer)
United Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Americas: King Charles III of Hanover (Blair)
Ottoman Empire: Sultan Mustafa IV Osmanoğlu (Kingpoleon)
Kingdom of Scandinavia: King Frederick VI Oldenburg & Queen Catherine of Holstein-Gottorp (Ypestis)
Russian Empire: Czarina Regent Maria Augusta Wettin
Kingdom of Prussia: Queen Regent Augusta Wittelsbach (Lumine)
Divine Republic of Brazil: Bishop-President Joaquim Gonçalves de Andrade (X)
Habsburg Monarchy: Emperor Francis III Habsburg-Lorraine (Dereich)
Kingdom of Louisiana: King Louis-Philippe II Bourbon (DKrol)
Joseon Korea: Queen Regent Sunwon (True Federalist)

Economic Standing:
Joseon Korea: Strong
Kingdom of Scandinavia: Moderate
United Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Americas: Moderate
Russian Empire: Moderate
Kingdom of France: Moderate
Qajar Persia: Moderate
Ottoman Empire: Weak
Xing Dynasty: Weak
Divine Republic of Brazil: Weak
Kingdom of Prussia: Moderate
Kingdom of Louisiana: Weak
Habsburg Monarchy: Weak

Popularity:
King Frederick VI & Queen Catherine of Scandinavia: High
Queen Regent Augusta of Prussia: High

Emperor Francis III Habsburg: Moderate
King Francis I Bourbon: Moderate
Sultan Mustafa IV Osmanoğlu: Moderate
Czarina Maria Augusta Wettin: Moderate
Mohammad Shah Qajar: Moderate
Queen Regent Marie Fernandina Bourbon: Moderate
King Louis-Philippe II Bourbon: Moderate
King Charles III of Britain: Moderate
Bishop-President Joaquim Gonçalves de Andrade: Moderate
Youfú Emperor: Moderate
Queen Regent Sunwon: Moderate

Current Global Conflicts:
War of Reunion: Qing Dynasty, Tibet vs. Hui Clique, Miao Clique (1839-)
American War of Secession: United Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Americas vs. Kingdom of Louisiana, American League (1837-)
Japanese-Dutch War: Tokugawa Shogunate, Xing Dynasty, Kingdom of Spain vs. East Asian Colonial Federation (1836-)
Great Eastern War: Russian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia, Qajar Persia, Polish Rebels, Greek Rebels,  vs. Ottoman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, Kingdom of Scandinavia, Durrani Empire vs. Kingdom of the Rhine (1838-)
Franco-Dutch War: Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Prussia, United Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Americas vs. Kingdom of the Netherlands (1839-)

(Source: Self-Made)


Kingdom of France:
(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

-Queen Regent Marie Fernandina, you come to power at a critical moment for France. The Dutch traitors continue to fight to the death in the Low Countries, Flemish traitors aiding their cause. Beyond the Rhine Europe is in flames, the Prussians and Austrians each seeking to topple the established order and finally end their rivalry once and for all. Your Francophone ally and dynastic partner in Louisiana faces a more brutal British onslaught daily. France has the power to tilt the balance in most of these situations, should you act wisely. How will you lead France through a crumbling international order?

-Finally, the Italians seem to have been subdued, your son Grand Duke Xavier and distant cousins in Parma, Genoa, and Modena have all been restored to their rightful thrones on the peninsula. Yet, even though your men triumphed on the field of battle, there is little sign that the locals have been reconciled them. The puppet sovereigns are deeply unpopular, seen as national traitors and unwanted tyrants by the locals. Still, it remains in the national interest of France to keep at least some of Italy close and pliant. How will you resolve the issue? Should greater French control be exerted over the dukes, who may have gotten away with too much abuse? Or would the Habsburg position of slight withdrawal and concessions be preferable? The Italian conundrum can no longer wait, as the recent revolts demonstrated, what will you decide?

-Politically France remains more divided than ever. It is feared that the death of King Louis XVIII and the victory in Italy may very well spell the end of the Sacred Union that has governed the realm since 1837. Both the liberal and conservative parties have seen their support on the streets in decline, as the reactionaries, nationalists, and socialists have risen. The past few years have demonstrated the difficulty in trying to govern from the center while the extremes eat away at support on either flank. It is expected that, in order to preserve their support, one or the other party will pull out of the government, forcing either early elections (the next vote being scheduled for 1841) or the construction of a new coalition. Thiers has advocated for you to endeavor to maintain the coalition, not wanting either radical side to gain too much influence, but others closer to Versailles believe the intervention of the regent in domestic politics could backfire. What will be your approach to the domestic political situation in the Kingdom of France?


United Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Americas:
(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

-The bloody gains in North America continue. 1839 has been seen as a particularly fortuitous year on this front. Your rapid advance into the Carolinas caused a significant portion of the rebel cause to take you up on your offer of a pardon, even if most remain loyal to the government in Montgomery. The east continues to be your best theater, however. The Army of Richmond was pushed back before it could seize the southern capitol, the Sioux are near collapse, and your soldiers have been pushed back beyond the Mississippi River. On the seas, a rare Louisianan naval victory around Cuba has created a small gap in your continental blockade. As the struggle continues, even if the end may now be far-off but in sight, how will you take action?

-Your parliamentary reform proposal has passed, in a much-celebrated political development. The Tories were brought around with your promises to split Tory seats and agreement to hold an election in the next year or so. With the coming vote, there is the question about whether you will support the Tories or the Whigs. Both your father and grandfather often vocally interfered in politics when it suited their interested, establishing friends and allies as Prime Minister. There are many subjects who listen quite closely to your statements and it could sway the vote. Some at Court fear being too vocal could backfire though, undermining cooperation if the incoming government is one you have not supported. Will you speak out on politics? If so, in favor of which party?

-Ireland has long been a part of your realm. Catholic Emancipation is now half a century old and, although that satisfied many on the island, there are new worries. The spread of nationalist sentiment across Europe, expressed in the rebellions of 1837, has reinvigorated the Irish nationalist movement. The Catholic Republicans here, emboldened by religious hatred married to republicanism, likewise have been emboldened by the success of their fellow ideologues in South America. Some would have you handle this issue by not acting at all, arguing that action against Irish dissidents could only cause more to rally to their cause. Others are more interventionist, urging you to deport any known Catholic Republicans to South America and crack down on nationalist groups. How will you deal with this sensitive topic, Ireland having long been an off-and-on point of tension in British politics?


Kingdom of Scandinavia:
(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

-Your decision to uphold the Convention of Prague and strike at Prussia has astounded much of the world, which had assumed relatively friendly relations between your two realms, despite recent foreign policy differences. Regardless, this move has been a major decision and committed Scandinavia to the great struggle in totality. Although you were unable to take Berlin, Prussia having established a defensive army just in case of a Scandinavian strike, you did occupy Mecklenburg. Now there’s choices to be made. How much men will you commit to Prussian operations in 1840? Will you strike at their soldiers in the Netherlands or seek to expand your gains in Prussia itself? Is Berlin a proper target or do operations elsewhere make seizing the city unfeasible?

-The St. Petersburg regency has little legitimacy and less almost every day. The escape of Grand Duke Peter, the heir to the throne, to Prussia and his subsequent support of Maria Augusta has torpedoed a lot of mainstream support from the Russian populace. Instead, many opportunists seek to join your cause such as those fleeing serfdom, disgraced by the old regime, or ethnic minorities seeking greater autonomy. All signs indicate that the massive realm is mobilizing apace, internal rebellions notwithstanding. With an angry Russia standing before you, how will you protect your gains of the previous two years?

-The German minority in Schleswig-Holstein is… problematic. From the subjects of that principality to the members of government from German nationalist parties, many are apprehensive they could be damaging to the Scandinavian war effort. There were even some fears the locals would rise in rebellion, though they seem to have been dissuaded for the time being by your success in Prussia. How will you handle this upset group of your subjects? Some are calling for forced resettlement of any captured dissidents and the encouragement of emigration, perhaps through extreme taxation. Others believe that their representatives ought to be removed from the national assembly, their constant tirades against the war effort being obnoxious. Perhaps the position of protector could be given to someone more suitable, given that Frederick III is now deceased. What is to be done about the German population in the region that feels as though it is losing its identity?


Habsburg Monarchy:
(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

-Vienna has been saved for the time being, God be praised. Italy too is at peace, ending the Neapolitan blockade that was severely damaging the economy. Though your dominions have celebrated the victory at the Battle of Sopron, the war overall leaves pessimists with mixed feelings. Bohemia, Galicia, Ruthenia, and part of Slovakia are under Prussian occupation. The Kingdom of the Rhine has retaken Stuttgart, though losses here may not have been as bad as was initially expected. Russia may be distracted by risings in Turkestan, the Scandinavian occupation of St. Petersburg, and the war with the Ottomans, but that does not mean that you have been forgotten. Worst of all, Archduke Charles now is in Prussian custody, a realm that blames you for the death of their late King. It seems likely the war will continue into the coming year. How will you ensure that the House of Habsburg comes out on top?

-The Swiss Republic cannot be trusted. Even with their ambitions in Italy thwarted, it is well-known that they are sympathetic to both the Prussians and the rebels in the Rhine. Although their initial hostility was directed towards the French, some sort of rapprochement, at least temporarily, with that realm seems to have been achieved. There are rumors that funding is going directly from Geneva to both Cologne and Berlin, the worst fears of some at Court being that “volunteers” will soon follow, as was the case in Italy. What will you do to ensure that the Swiss do not join the extensive list of realms seeking to destabilize your realm?

-The rapid Prussian seizure of your colonies in Africa has made some in Vienna worried that either Ningbo, your hard-won trading port in China, or your Andaman Islands could be next. Both have been quite difficult to resupply and extremely isolated. Yet, at the same time these small outposts have proven quite valuable thus far, allowing your traders access to the extensive Xing trading network and East Asia as a whole. Some urge you to negotiate with the Youfu Emperor so that the Chinese will defend the Austrian concession should the Prussians or any other hostile power attack. Others fear that the surrender of defensive capabilities to the Chinese could just be the first step of that realm re-assuming control over the city. How will you handle the situation in far-off Ningbo? Furthermore, what is to be done to ensure that the Andamans do not fall prey to a hostile power, perhaps the French could be relied on to assert Austrian sovereignty there?


Kingdom of Prussia:
(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

-Your strike at the Habsburg capitol was not successful, a blow to the ambitions of 1839. Even so, your gains over the previous year must not be overlooked. Bohemia-Moravia is largely occupied in totality, presence beyond the Carpathians is now non-existent, Archduke Charles is in a Silesian prison, and even Pressburg has fallen. Still, the Scandinavian strike has infuriated your realm and was a rare moment of weakness for Prussia. Furthermore, with the loss of Hamburg and the closing of the Danish straight, Prussia proper faces blockade akin to what the Habsburgs had to deal with the past few years. This war is still up in the air, how will you make certain that Prussia will avenge the fallen?

-France has been frustrated in the southern Netherlands, but your soldiers had a relatively easy time taking Groningen and moving into the north of the region. Here you have a dilemma. The Scandinavia attack has meant that your men are now cut off from the rest of Prussia. Although they could cross through the Kingdom of the Rhine in theory, your truce with the Rhenish is still fresh and they show little indication that they would allow you military access. Some would have you ignore this issue and continue operations in the Netherlands in coordination with the British and French. Others worry about the prospect of losing an entire army of almost 50,000 well-trained Prussian regulars. What will you do about operations in the Netherlands in 1840?

-The Russian Empire has been dealt some sizeable blows, but shows every indication of staying strong for the time being. Czarina Regent Maria Augusta has proposed that your two realms agree that there ought to be no separate peace, in order to cement your common interests in this struggle. Beyond that, she requests you return Grand Duke Peter at once, so he can join her government and bolster its legitimacy. Many see closer ties with Russia as the obvious answer to the Scandinavian-Ottoman-Habsburg friendship, though there are those that have noted the massive manpower losses faced by Russia in the past few years. How will you respond to the Czarina? Will you coordinate your war efforts moving forward with the Empire, if so, in what capacity?


Ottoman Empire:

(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

-Whatever setbacks there were in Mesopotamia, the rest of the war featured significant victories for your forces. The Russians were annihilated in Transylvania and Astrakhan has been captured, igniting a Turkish revolt against the Czarina Regent. Still, there are decisions to be made. The Russians seem to be mobilizing to try another stab at Crimea and the Austrians seem vulnerable given the loss of Bohemia, Slovakia, and Galicia. The war seems destined to rage on for yet another year, what will be done to ensure that you survive?

-Persia has betrayed you and struck on your vulnerable border, overrunning much of Mesopotamia and severely endangering Ottoman control over the region for the first time in centuries. There is fury in Istanbul over the betrayal, but also a growing sense of fright, given your armies are currently engaged in the Balkans and Russian Steppe. Still, if the Persians are allowed to go unchecked, that places the heart of the Empire at risk. Not all hope is lost, given your massive numerical advantage over the war-weary Persians, but action must be taken. How will you handle the Persian betrayal and the subsequent Arabic Shia rising?

-Events in Istanbul, including the massacre of your Greek subjects by the Turks, have shaken the Court. Inside the palace, your advisors seem to be dividing into petty factions, convinced there are plots behind every corner. Some fear the Russians may be responsible for the spread of this unrest, in order to damage your war effort and urge you to take actions. There are a wide variety of options on the table ranging from investigation, resettlement of the Greeks to alleviate ethnic tensions, a shuffling of government officials, or perhaps even political reforms to boost your popularity in a shaky situation. What will be done to ensure that there is not a repeat of the Istanbul Affair in 1840?


Divine Republic of Brazil:
(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

-Peace has been established with Spain, a respite from foreign attack seeming likely for the time being. Still, there are enemies on the home front. Though the rebels were dealt a severe blow with the fall of Recife, small militias continue to operate out of the north of the country, emboldened by foreign smugglers who have continued to resupply their war effort. How is the civil war to be closed once and for all? Beyond that, what would you do with all the counter-revolutionary swine, from de Rosas on down, that you have captured over the course of the Wars of Independence and Brazilian Civil War?

-Diplomatically, given your larger population and significant role in assuring victory, other powers look to you as the leader of the Catholic Republican cause. The decimation of Colombia and La Plata has only further exacerbated your demographic advantage for the time being. Your continent faces trouble from the outside. A blockade continues of your realm by Prussian ships for now, though some expect that power would be willing to withdraw its fleet given its closeness with Spain. Beyond that, given your role as one of the preeminent Catholic Republican powers, what will be your foreign policy goals now that independence has finally been achieved? How will you bring glory to the cause?

-The redistribution of the plantations and the abolition of slavery has resulted in great changes to the domestic economic situation. The freed slaves have often tended to work on establishing self-sufficient homesteads on their smaller plots of land rather than continue to cultivate expensive and labor-intensive crops such as sugar, a primary export of your country. This turn away from traditional crops has only been exacerbated by the effects of the blockade. There are some of your advisors who foresee disaster if something is not done, arguing your realm will suffer from a lack of exports. Will you attempt to save the plantation industry of the past, perhaps through subsidies or buying back estates, or should the market decide what is best for Brazil?
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« Reply #182 on: September 14, 2020, 12:05:11 am »
« Edited: September 15, 2020, 09:04:33 pm by Spamage »

Kingdom of Louisiana:
(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

-You have successfully gotten the Americans to elect you as monarch, meaning your generals will now largely assume command of the rebellion. It could not have come at a more crucial moment. The British have no seized back most of the Carolinas, further cementing their power on the eastern seaboard. Although there has been noted success in the west, where both the Sioux and the British who crossed the Missouri River have been forced back to the colonies, the east is undoubtedly the more important front.

-Mexico lent you their ships, which proved vital in breaking the British blockade south of Cuba and allowing a trickle of trade to return to both New Orleans and other American ports. Yet, other than that major powers have steered clear of your struggle. Perhaps it is time that is changed. The war in Europe means that you could probably gain numerous allies simultaneously if you chose one of the two sides. Beyond those coalitions, though, France, in particular, has proven to be a most willing buyer of blockade-run goods. Given your dynastic ties, shared language, and common heritage, might it not be prudent to get them involved, perhaps as a mediator in the war? Brazil, even with your differences over slavery and government form, could also prove to be a useful ally, if they could be convinced to provide aid. Will you expand your diplomatic network in the coming year to counter the British?

-Though the Americans have elected you monarch, there is great confusion over how your two governments will cooperate. Already there are many in Montgomery who are calling for the two governments to be united in totality, an easy choice given there are slightly more American southerners than Louisianans. It is feared in New Orleans that the haste with which this was suggested means that your southern subjects fear for the longevity of their revolt. Others believe that, while the two realms are tied together in your person, formal union ought to be avoided, given the bevy of issues that could arise. Or, perhaps, it would be better to wait until formal independence has been achieved to talk of politics. How will you approach this issue, King Louis-Philippe?


Joseon:
(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

-Korean annexation of the Heonjong Islands and expansion into Manchuria have both been celebrated in the capitol, further evidence of the changes rocking the realm. The Joseon of five or ten years ago seems to be no more. Every day there is new evidence of innovation or reform. Given this trend towards embracing the outside world, some would have you start to loosen up the trade policies, and allow direct trading from ports in Korea proper, no longer just Incheon and a select few locations. Your grandson, young as he may be, has become a particular supporter of this path. Others believe that opening more of Korea only invites the foreign powers to carve out treaty ports as the Japanese, Habsburgs, and Swedes have done in China. This is not to mention the economic destabilization that could be caused by such a large influx of foreign goods, though tariffs undoubtedly would help moderate this. Will you further liberalize Korean trade policy, or should the status quo continue, too much change potentially inviting too much backlash?

-Diplomatically, many have eyed the Japanese expansion into the Philippines and the Xing decision to conduct campaigns to the west as alarming, as it serves as a demonstration both powers have imperial aspirations in the region. It is up to you to ensure that your realm is not smashed between them. Thus, the court has largely divided into two cliques, each that would have you act as a decisive power in determining the balance of the region. There are many who fear the Xing, in particular, could try to reassert the age-old Chinese attempts to make your realm into a tributary, just as the Youfu Emperor is doing to the west. This anti-China faction would have you start closer ties with the Tokugawa Shogunate, especially given Tokugawa Ieyoshi’s success in seizing control of that state. Yet, others do not trust Japan and fear becoming too beholden to them for access to the Batanes and Heonjong Islands, especially if they were to acquire the Philippines. The anti-Japanese faction at Court would have you align yourself further with the Xing, who possess far more manpower than Japan ever will and could provide suitable protection. Will you back one or the other power? Or perhaps keeping both pleased ought to be tried, even if the subtle tensions between the two powers seem to be on the rise daily…

-The Prince of Beizi is dead. Manchuria has been secured. Some of your soldiers remain on Xing territory, though, from the last days of the rebellion. Given the instability of the new dynasty, there are those at Court who would have them remain at their posts beyond the Yalu River, providing an extra line of defense should the Xing break your agreement and launch a surprise attack. Others fear antagonizing China and urge a quick withdrawal. For what it’s worth, the local population seems to support the Korean presence, fearing reprisal for being the heartland of Qing support over the past 15 years, both during the reign of the Yansheng Emperor and afterwards. Will you move the Korean soldiers or should fortifications be established in the occupied zone?


Armies and Locations
Russian Empire
119,000 Army of the North
110,000 Army of the South
98,000 Army of Astrakhan
39,900 Army of Poland
63,000 Army of Mongolia
25,000 Xinjiang Volunteers
5,000 Army of Alaska
30,000 men garrisoned
(Can raise 103,000 more)

Kingdom of France
218,300 Army of Flanders
63,400 Army of Northern France
144,100 Army of Southern France
80,000 Army of Bengal
40,000 Army of Gujarat
40,000 Army of Spain
21,100 Army of the Sacred Heart (Burma)
40,000 men garrisoned
(Can raise 4,000 more)

Habsburg Monarchy
94,500 Army of Wurttemburg
21,400 Army of Italy
265,700 Army of Vienna
53,900 Army of Poland
26,400 Army of Transylvania
9,800 Army of the Suez
36,000 men garrisoned
(Can raise 2,000 more)

Kingdom of Prussia
65,250 Army of Berlin
49,000 Army of East Frisia
206,500 Royal Army
93,000 Army of Poland
8,300 Army of the Cape
8,800 Army of Greece
6,000 Army of Angola
5,000 Army of the Congo
30,000 men garrisoned
(Can raise 4,000 more)

United Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Americas
90,000 Army of Britain
39,000 Army of Tennessee
14,000 Army of North Carolina
18,000 Army of South Carolina
9,200 Army of Georgia
28,000 Army of Missouri
26,700 Army of Cumberland
10,000 Army of Australia
1,700 Army of Ghana
1,500 Army of Nigeria
9,800 Army of the Suez
3,000 Army of Richmond
30,000 men garrisoned
(Can raise 137,000 more)

Shenyang Qing Dynasty
89,000 Army of Manchuria
10,000 men garrisoned
(Can raise 0 more)

Ottoman Empire
9,500 Army of Singapore
98,700 Army of Transylvania
24,300 Army of Greece
185,000 Army of Astrakhan
6,700 Army of Crimea
(Can raise 2,000 more)

Xing Dynasty
89,000 Army of Chengdu
76,000 Army of the West
51,000 Army of Wuhan
33,000 Army of Hainan
30,000 men garrisoned
(Can raise 72,000 more)

Kingdom of Spain
52,000 Army of Spain
31,000 Army of Galicia
35,000 Army of Yucatan
25,000 La Platan Remnants
59,200 Army of Peru
22,000 Army of Chile
20,000 Army of Cuba
10,000 men garrisoned
(Can raise 2,000 more)

Kingdom of Scandinavia
87,800 Army of Pommerania
88,000 Army of Finland
60,000 Army of the Baltic
23,000 Army of Lagoda
5,000 Army of Liberia
5,000 Army of Eritrea
7,500 Army of Mombasa
2,000 Army of Gabon
8,200 Army of the Suez
1,000 Army of Socotra
35,000 men garrisoned
(Can raise 4,000 more)

Kingdom of Naples
85,000 Army of Naples
10,000 Army of Sicily
20,000 men garrisoned
(Can raise 68,000 more)

Republic of Brazil
83,000 Army of La Plata
53,000 Army of the Peru (In Colombia)
55,000 Army of Recife
10,000 men garrisoned
(Can raise 30,000 more)

Joseon Korea
60,000 Army of the North
36,000 Army of the South
12,000 Cheollima Corps
12,000 Gumiho Corps
10,000 Marine Corps
12,000 Manchurian Flying Corps
42,000 men garrisoned in Korea, 3,000 Ningguta Division garrisoned in Manchuria
(Can raise 10,000 more: 5,000 Koreans, 5,000 Manchurians)

Kingdom of Louisiana/America
39,000 Army of Florida
44,500 Army of the South
40,000 Army of the Mississippi
24,000 Army of Colorado
16,000 National Gendarmerie
9,000 Army of the North
10,000 men garrisoned
(Can raise 50,000 more)

Qajar Persia
45,000 Northern Army
49,000 Army of Mesopotamia
16,000 Army of the South
8,500 Army of Gwadar
(Can raise 2,000 more)


Navies of the World
United Kingdom of Britain, Ireland, and the Americas (First-Rate, Dominant)
Kingdom of France (First-Rate, Dominant)
Kingdom of Prussia (Innovative, Sizable)
Kingdom of Scandinavia (Innovative, Sizable)
Kingdom of the Netherlands (Advanced, Sizable)
Kingdom of Naples (Advanced, Standard)
Kingdom of Spain (Modernized, Sizable)
Kingdom of Quebec (Modernized, Standard)
Ottoman Empire (Modernized, Standard)
Habsburg Monarchy (Modernized, Limited)
Kingdom of Louisiana (Modernized, Limited)
Republic of Brazil (Modernized, Limited)
Russian Empire (Reformed, Standard)
Joseon Korea (Reformed, Standard)
Tokugawa Japan (Modified, Standard)
Xing Dynasty (Traditional, Standard)
Qajar Persia (Traditional, Limited)
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« Reply #183 on: September 14, 2020, 06:25:06 pm »

An open letter from Queen Regent Sunwon and King Heonjong

Let it be known by all sovereigns and potentates that, while the King of Joseon has not yet reached an age at which the regency can be terminated, he has attained sufficient wisdom and experience that henceforth all diplomatic missives shall be signed by the king and countersigned by the regent.

King Heonjong

Queen Regent Sunwon
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« Reply #184 on: September 15, 2020, 11:48:34 am »

On the Suez Canal

Francis, August Emperor of the Romans, hereby renounces all interests in the Suez Canal Authority in favor of his friend the most excellent Sultan Mustafa Osmanoğlu as the party best able to fulfill the noble purpose of that waterway as laid out in the Declaration on the Operation of the Suez Canal of 1835.

X Francis, Holy Roman Emperor
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« Reply #185 on: September 16, 2020, 12:37:17 am »

An open letter concerning the Pirates of Willemstad

It appears that the arrogance of the Dutch colonialists knows few bounds. The "diplomats" of the OAK-F responded to a proposal of ours by not merely rejecting it, as is of course the prerogative of any power, but by insulting our realm as a "pagan, backwards Kingdom".

One would think their expulsion from Dejima a few decades ago and their recent losses against the Xoufu emperor and the Tokugawa shogun would have taught them that the powers of the Orient are neither the divided principalities of the Indies, nor the primitives of the Austral continent. However, it would appear that the pirates of Willemstad are as humble as they are intelligent.

Since they think us worthy only of contempt, we shall return the favor. Effectively immediately, ships holding allegiance to the failing oak of the Dutch colonialists are barred from Joseon ports. Joseon merchants are barred from entering into or remaining in ports controlled by the OAK-F. We recognize only one legitimate Dutch government, that which is based in Amsterdam, though we take no position on what the form of that government should be, as we are humble enough to recognize that the disposition of the Mandate of Heaven for the Netherlands is not ours to determine.

King Heonjong

Queen Regent Sunwon
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« Reply #186 on: September 16, 2020, 12:19:07 pm »
« Edited: September 16, 2020, 12:28:48 pm by True Federalist (진정한 연방 주의자) »

An award for excellence in composition

A jaunty little martial tune was performed at court last night and I have decided to give the composer a personal reward of eight hundred nyang of silver coin for entertaining the court so well.

King Heonjong


We are marching to Batavia, Batavia, Batavia
We are marching to Batavia
Batavia, Hooorah!

You sing with me, I'll sing with you and so we will sing together
So we will sing together
So we will sing together
Sing with me, I'll sing with you and so we will sing together
As we march along.

We are marching to Batavia, Batavia, Batavia
We are marching to Batavia
Batavia, Hooorah!

행진하고 있습니다 바타비아, 바타비아, 바타비아로.
행진하고 있습니다 바타비아로
바타비아, 후라!
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« Reply #187 on: September 16, 2020, 01:54:42 pm »

War is inevitable, but disrupting trade routes shall be avoided at all costs. The Kingdom of France doesn't wish to enter the so called "Great Eastern War". However, it does wish to protect the South African trade route and expand the use of the french language.

Thus, in behalf of the most Christian King Louis XIX,  The Grandmother queen regent is pleased to sign this following treaty:

Quote
The Franco-Prussian Accords (1840)
An accord between the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of Prussia,

1.) The signatories hereby recognize their mutual and common desire to maintain a positive and constructive relationship, as well as to respect and recognize their current areas of influence.

2.) For the duration of the Great Eastern War, the Kingdom of France will guarantee the continued integrity and security of the Prussian colonies against external powers, acting as a protector. This protection may entail the commonly-agreed deployment of 100 French advisors per colony to deter acts of aggression.

3.) The Kingdom of Prussia hereby commits to a reduction of tariffs (50%) placed on France in the South African territories. The Kingdom of Prussia also commits to promoting the French language as a second language in its colonies.

4.) The signatories both commit not to undermine, obstruct or weaken each other through the use of intrigue or spies.

x Grandmother queen regent Maria Ferdinanda
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« Reply #188 on: September 16, 2020, 02:03:03 pm »

Quote
The Treaty of Sao Paulo
A Treaty between the Divine Republic of Brazil and the Kingdom of Prussia,

1.- The signatories hereby agree to a full cessation of direct and indirect hostilities, including any acts of espionage and/or blockade.

2.- The signatories, whilst recognizing the inherent differences of their own systems of government, agree to advance towards a positive working relationship.

3.- The Kingdom of Prussia will sell and transfer the Prussian Guyana territory to the Divine Republic of Brazil, via payment of an appropriate sum (OOC: to be determined by Spamage), a 50% reduction of tariffs on Prussian merchants, goods and overall trade, and a preferential trade status to be established.

4.- The signatories recognize their present borders and areas of influence. They also commit not to undermine, obstruct or weaken each other through the use of intrigue or spies.

x Queen Regent Augusta

Quote
The Konigsberg Treaty
A treaty between the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia,

1.- The signatories hereby agree to a full alliance, and pledge to work together to address the unforgivable acts of aggression inflicted upon both nations.

2.- The signatories recognize their respective regencies as the only lawful and legitimate governments of Prussia and Russia, led respectively by Queen Regent Augusta, and by Czarina Regent Maria Augusta.

3.- The signatories commit not to sign a separate peace from each other in the Great Eastern War.

x Queen Regent Augusta

Quote
The Franco-Prussian Accords (1840)
An accord between the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of Prussia,

1.) The signatories hereby recognize their mutual and common desire to maintain a positive and constructive relationship, as well as to respect and recognize their current areas of influence.

2.) For the duration of the Great Eastern War, the Kingdom of France will guarantee the continued integrity and security of the Prussian colonies against external powers, acting as a protector. This protection may entail the commonly-agreed deployment of 100 French advisors per colony to deter acts of aggression.

3.) The Kingdom of Prussia hereby commits to a reduction of tariffs (50%) placed on France in the South African territories. The Kingdom of Prussia also commits to promoting the French language as a second language in its colonies.

4.) The signatories both commit not to undermine, obstruct or weaken each other through the use of intrigue or spies.

x Grandmother queen regent Maria Ferdinanda

x Queen Regent Augusta
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« Reply #189 on: September 16, 2020, 08:25:15 pm »

Quote
The Konigsberg Treaty
A treaty between the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia,

1.- The signatories hereby agree to a full alliance, and pledge to work together to address the unforgivable acts of aggression inflicted upon both nations.

2.- The signatories recognize their respective regencies as the only lawful and legitimate governments of Prussia and Russia, led respectively by Queen Regent Augusta, and by Czarina Regent Maria Augusta.

3.- The signatories commit not to sign a separate peace from each other in the Great Eastern War.

x Queen Regent Augusta

X Czarina Regent Maria Augusta
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« Reply #190 on: September 16, 2020, 09:12:13 pm »

Quote
The Treaty of Sao Paulo
A Treaty between the Divine Republic of Brazil and the Kingdom of Prussia,

1.- The signatories hereby agree to a full cessation of direct and indirect hostilities, including any acts of espionage and/or blockade.

2.- The signatories, whilst recognizing the inherent differences of their own systems of government, agree to advance towards a positive working relationship.

3.- The Kingdom of Prussia will sell and transfer the Prussian Guyana territory to the Divine Republic of Brazil, via payment of an appropriate sum (OOC: to be determined by Spamage), a 50% reduction of tariffs on Prussian merchants, goods and overall trade, and a preferential trade status to be established.

4.- The signatories recognize their present borders and areas of influence. They also commit not to undermine, obstruct or weaken each other through the use of intrigue or spies.

x Queen Regent Augusta

x Bishop-President Joaquim Gonçalves de Andrade

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« Reply #191 on: September 18, 2020, 06:24:13 pm »

The People's Post

Murder and Espionage in Lisbon!

Comrades,

It is known in every corner of the world that the heroism of the late King Antonio of Portugal was matched only by the vile depravity of those most black and infamous fiends responsible for his murder.  Like his son, he was that rare man who can truly be said to have been called an enlightened monarch.  He saw the dastardly depravity of the reactionary monarchist system and yet...he used it against itself to do the Lord's work.  Thankfully, it is already plain that Antonio's son has learned from his father's example.  

However, we have been conducted a comprehensive inquiry into his death and can definitively report that this assassination was the result of foreign espionage by a most black and infamous fiend seeking to frame both the Catholic-Republican nations of the world and the kingdom of Spain in an effort to spark a war between Portugal and one of us.  There is much and more that can be said about Spain's prior perfidy, but neither they nor we had any part in this wicked crime.  And yet, we have learned that this act of COLD-BLOODED MURDER was personally ordered by a foreign monarch.

In fact, our inquiry has - with the guidance of our Father in heaven - determined that the true culprit was either the King of France or the King of Prussia. While there was initially some evidence pointing to the King of England, further inquiries suggest that England is no longer a likely suspect.  The Eyes of the Lord are watching and all sinners would do well to remember that His judgement cometh and soon!  
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« Reply #192 on: September 18, 2020, 07:02:08 pm »

Joseon-Brazil Treaty of Trade and Amity

The realms of Brazil and Joseon pledge to the promotion of peace and amity between our subjects.

Among the measures taken to so promote amity shall be measures to promote commercial intercourse.

To that end, Brazilian ships and merchants shall be permitted to trade at the Joseon ports of Incheon and Donghae while Joseon ships and merchants shall be permitted to trade at the Brazilian ports of Santos and Manaus.

The navies of Brazil and Joseon will cooperate to aid the commercial vessels of both realms against the ravages of weather and pirates.

In the event of storms or other dangers, our commercial vessels shall be able to seek shelter and succor in the harbors of either of our realms.

King Heonjong

in consultation with and the agreement of
Queen Regent Sunwon
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« Reply #193 on: September 18, 2020, 07:06:26 pm »

Joseon-Brazil Treaty of Trade and Amity

The realms of Brazil and Joseon pledge to the promotion of peace and amity between our subjects.

Among the measures taken to so promote amity shall be measures to promote commercial intercourse.

To that end, Brazilian ships and merchants shall be permitted to trade at the Joseon ports of Incheon and Donghae while Joseon ships and merchants shall be permitted to trade at the Brazilian ports of Santos and Manaus.

The navies of Brazil and Joseon will cooperate to aid the commercial vessels of both realms against the ravages of weather and pirates.

In the event of storms or other dangers, our commercial vessels shall be able to seek shelter and succor in the harbors of either of our realms.

King Heonjong

in consultation with and the agreement of
Queen Regent Sunwon

x Bishop-President Joaquim Gonçalves de Andrade
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« Reply #194 on: September 18, 2020, 10:57:35 pm »

조선 법원 선포
Proclamations of the Court of Joseon

(Source: Wikimedia Commons)

King Heonjong in accordance with the advice of Queen Regent Sunwon and his advisors, announces on this Dano of the seventh year of his reign (1840) the following:

Post Office Act, 7 Heonjong
1. There is to be established a Bureau of the Post Office within the Ministry of Commerce.

2. A post office shall by the end of next year be established within each township of the Joseon Kingdom and within each county of the Duchy of Outer Manchuria. The bureau may establish additional post offices within the counties of the Duchy of Outer Manchuria as it deems them to be needed, but no more than one per township. Furthermore, each grand duchy shall be encouraged to establish a postal system of its own. If a grand duchy should choose to not establish a postal system in accordance with this act, the Joseon resident for that grand duchy shall establish and maintain a post office for the sending of mail to any valid address within the Joseon realm and to act as a reception point for General Delivery mail, as defined in section 4 of this act, addressed to a recipient in that grand duchy.

3. Mail intended for delivery within the Joseon Kingdom shall be addressed with the name and delivery address of the recipient in the Joseon language using the eonmun script. Mail intended for delivery within the Duchy of Outer Manchuria shall be addressed with the name and delivery address of the recipient in one or more of the Joseon language using the eonmun script, the Manchu language using the Manchu script, or in the Chinese language using Zhongwen. Mail intended for delivery within a grand duchy shall be in such form as the grand duke thereof determines, save that the use of the Joseon language using the eonmun script shall be an option under any grand ducal postal service that is established under this act.

4. General Delivery mail shall be achieved by addressing the postal item to the intended recipient, along with the term "General Delivery" (통상 우편) and the location of the post office. General Delivery mail shall be kept at the post office receiving it for a minimum of thirty days for collection by the adressee.

5. Recipients of mail may either use General Delivery, rent a post office box in which mail will be kept until collected, or make arrangements for delivery to their domicile or place of business.

6. Postage shall be paid by the sender. The sender may pay a surcharge as determined by the bureau for special delivery to the recipient's physical address even if their customary postal address is either general delivery or a post office box. The payment of the postage shall be stamped upon the article of mail in such manner as the bureau may determine.

7. Cards of no more than ¼ cheok by ½ cheok in size shall be subject to a rate of 3 mun for delivery within the same township, ¼ don of silver coin for delivery within the same province or duchy, and ½ don of silver coin for delivery within the Joseon realm.

8. Envelopes of no more than ½ cheok by 1 cheok in size shall be subject to a rate per nyang of 5 mun for delivery within the same township, ½ don of silver coin for delivery in the same province or duchy, and 1 don of silver coin for delivery within the Joseon realm.

9. The bureau may provide for the delivery to postal addresses of small parcels weighing no more than 5 gwan at such rates as it determines needful to cover the costs of such deliveries.

10. Members of the armed services will not be required to pay postage on postcards sent to their home address, nor will their parents, wives, or children be required to pay postage on postcards sent to them. Other forms of mail shall be charged postage as if it were to a recipient in the same province. Mail addressed to members of the armed services shall use as an address the name and service number of the addressee and either the Ministry of War or the Ministry of the Navy. The address shall not include the rank, unit, or post of the military addressee.

11. The Bureau of the Post Office may enter into arrangements with foreign postal services, private or public, for delivering mail between Joseon addresses and foreign addresses, subject to the provision that the added costs to the bureau of such service shall be borne solely by the postage collected from the senders of the mail at such rates as it deems appropriate.

12. To facilitate the sending of the mail and other commercial purposes, the Bureau of the Mint may produce coins of ¼ don or of ½ don of coin silver according to the fineness standard of the Coinage Act, 6 Heonjong.
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Spamage
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« Reply #195 on: September 18, 2020, 11:00:31 pm »
« Edited: September 18, 2020, 11:05:24 pm by Spamage »

Padania Arises in Italy
Louis XIX Declared Luigi I
(Made by Me)

   The situation in the French-backed Italian principalities was bound to change after the Italian Revolutions of 1837. The expulsion of the various unpopular Bourbon dukes, coupled with their restoration on the backs of French soldiers, severely undermined their legitimacy and only helped to further engender the disconnect between them and their Italian subjects. Parma, Piedmont, Genoa, and Modena may have looked restored in form, but in practice the French authorities had assumed a far greater degree of control than was exerted previously.
   Ultimately, this matter came to a head with the Padanian Declaration of 1840. Queen Regent Marie Fernandina, perhaps the only individual with the legitimacy to do so, declared the Kingdom of Padania, naming the young King Louis XIX of France as Luigi I of Padania. As the daughter of the late Grand Duchess of Piedmont and granddaughter of the martyred King Victor Amadeus of Sardinia, her opinion was highly respected throughout the northwestern portion of the Italian Peninsula. Was she not the legitimate heiress to the historic House of Savoy?
   Although the Bourbon dukes retained their titles, their realms were merged into a larger state, one to be held in perpetual union with the Kingdom of France. The federal government would be limited and bicameral in nature, though young King Luigi was granted a wide range of powers, including the right to appoint a member to the senate and sack the Royal Chancellor. The senators would be appointed by the dukes (two apiece), while the lower chamber would employ a proportional system of representation based on population and votes. Internal tariffs were abolished, as the new government was founded on three principles: federalism, order, and prosperity.
   There was almost a sense of whiplash, there only being several months between the January declaration of the Kingdom of Padania and the June elections. From the start the authorities enforced a blanket ban on a wide array of factions, including Catholic republicans, liberal republicans, and pro-Neapolitan nationalists. Many different strains of political movements emerged in this environment, reacting to the news that the people of northwest Italy would be united. Seven major factions ultimately competed in the first election: conservatives, liberal monarchists, moderate socialists, reactionaries, integralists, regionalists, and separatists. The conservatives, as in much of Europe, consisted of a broad alliance between the right-leaning rural peasantry and the established nobility. Liberal monarchists generally included the newer capitalist class in a loose alliance with reformers aiming for a greater degree of constitutionalism. The moderate socialists demonstrated loyalty to the Crown but hoped for substantial reform in favor of the working classes. The reactionaries, consisting mostly of the nobility and discouraged conservatives, desired the weakening of the new government, aiming for a semi-absolutist state, looking back to Victor Amadeus III for inspiration. Integralists (i.e. the Catholic Monarchists) demanded policies along the lines of those enacted in Portugal, though couching this in intense personal loyalty to King Louis and the Church. Regionalists hoped to see the central government in Turin weakened, restoring power to the various dukes or local assemblies, fearing domination by the larger populated areas. Finally, the separatists remained loyal to King Louis, but wanted eventual separation from France, perhaps by being inherited by one of the King’s hypothetical future younger children.
   The results of the first election on June 1st, 1840 saw no single faction garner a majority. Though the conservatives won the most seats in the lower assembly, they were shy of the 125-seat majority necessary to govern. The Senate was far clearer, consisting of 3 conservatives, 3 reactionaries, and 2 liberals, with the Crown yet to appoint their tiebreaker candidate. Turnout was remarkably low, some expecting that the exclusion of the various radicals has been coupled with a nationalist protest to the French-imposed regime. With the vote concluded, the new kingdom will face its first challenge: assembling a government, establishing the new regime, and winning the support of the people of the realm.
   Internationally, the French declaration of the Kingdom of Padania was met with shock. Diplomats in Naples, Switzerland, Tuscany, and Romagna all issued public protests and have refused thus far to recognize the new government, calling Padania a “crown of paper”. Vienna seems to have been more circumspect in their own response, more focused on their battle with Prussia. Even so, the arrival of Padania onto the Italian peninsula creates complication, four titular kings holding sway over the region. Padania (France) in the northwest, Lombardy (Austria) in the northeast, Sardinia (Spain) in the western islands, and Naples in the south. “It is getting a bit crowded,” King Francis of Naples is alleged to have said upon hearing of the news. The Italian drama now continues, the future of the peninsula still uncertain due to the instability of the past few years.

Quebec Strikes North!
New World Realm Joins Prussian War Effort
(Source: Canadian Geographic)

   The Kingdom of Quebec watched European developments quite closely following the start of the Great Eastern War. King Louis-Henry had reasons to favor either side. While he naturally had a dynastic affinity for Prussia, home of his Hohenzollern cousins, he had also married his daughter Princess Charlotte of Quebec to Archduke Charles of Austria in 1836 and had two grandsons from that marriage, 2-year old Maximilian and 1-year-old Louis-Henry of Austria. Still, facing pressure from his citizens and having long sought-after territorial gains in North America, the King felt forced to act.
   Mustering small detachments, Quebec declared war on the Kingdom of Scandinavia and quickly moved to seize their sparsely inhabited and vast lands in the far north of the continent. Montreal had long desired to acquire the lands to the north of Hudson’s Bay, but Scandinavia had repeatedly insisted on not ceding more territory. With Stockholm committed to operations in Russia and Central Europe, a rare window had opened to take what the Quebecois saw as rightfully theirs. Resistance was quite limited as the territory was captured, the small indigenous population looking on as the soldiers scoured the empty region for any small enemy detachments. By June, with the sunlight stretching on almost endlessly, the region was finally secured in its entirety. Two casualties have been reported: one who caught frostbite and died and another Quebecois soldier who went missing, perhaps mauled by a polar bear.
   The diplomatic significance of this move is quite notable, especially in the Americas. Coupled with the twin commitments of France and Spain to protect Prussia’s colonies, the entry of Quebec into the broader conflict further strengthens that realm’s soft power in the region (though many British subjects in the northern colonies, suspicious of Quebec, have established pro-Austrian and Scandinavian sympathies). King Louis Henry, attempting to assuage the fury of Princess Charlotte in Vienna, has been quick to note repeatedly that he does not consider himself involved in the broader conflict, this being purely a fight between Quebec and Scandinavia.
   Although there is concern about a potential strike at Greenland in Stockolm, further operations this year seem unlikely, as the seasons begin to change once more. Still, even if Greenland (or Iceland for that matter) were lost, it’s generally accepted in Scandinavian circles that losing their miniscule population would make no larger difference in the massive conflagration raging across Russia and Germany. Many look on with great interest to see how the Scandinavians will respond to this opportunistic strike on their colonial empire
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YPestis25
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« Reply #196 on: September 19, 2020, 02:08:05 am »

Quote
Gothenburg Protocol

1.) The signatories hereby recognize the importance of their mutual interests, and commit to the preservation of friendly relations between their two states.

2.) For the remainder of the Great Eastern War, the Kingdom of France shall guarantee the integrity and security of the Scandinavian colonies in Africa against foreign powers, acting as a protector. This protection may entail the commonly-agreed deployment of 100 French advisors per colony to deter acts of aggression.

3.) The Kingdom of Scandinavia hereby commits to a reduction of tariffs placed on France in the Scandinavian African territories. The Kingdom of Scandinavia further pledges the promotion of the French language as a second language in its colonies.

4.) The Kingdom of Scandinavia recognizes the Kingdom of Padania as the legitimate government in its administered territories.
xFrederick and Catherine, King and Queen of Scandinavia

(Very original as everyone can see Tongue)
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« Reply #197 on: September 19, 2020, 02:09:46 am »

Quote
Gothenburg Protocol

1.) The signatories hereby recognize the importance of their mutual interests, and commit to the preservation of friendly relations between their two states.

2.) For the remainder of the Great Eastern War, the Kingdom of France shall guarantee the integrity and security of the Scandinavian colonies in Africa against foreign powers, acting as a protector. This protection may entail the commonly-agreed deployment of 100 French advisors per colony to deter acts of aggression.

3.) The Kingdom of Scandinavia hereby commits to a reduction of tariffs placed on France in the Scandinavian African territories. The Kingdom of Scandinavia further pledges the promotion of the French language as a second language in its colonies.

4.) The Kingdom of Scandinavia recognizes the Kingdom of Padania as the legitimate government in its administered territories.
xFrederick and Catherine, King and Queen of Scandinavia

(Very original as everyone can see Tongue)

x Grandmother queen regent Maria Ferdinanda
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DKrol
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« Reply #198 on: September 21, 2020, 02:35:25 pm »

A Proclamation from the Court of King Louis-Philippe II Bourbon, King of Louisana and the Americans

On the Governance of the American Confederation: The newly united eastern realm must be welcomed into the fold of my domains. As such, I appoint Alexander H. Stephens as the Royal Governor. His seat will be in Montgomery and he will be treated with all the rights and privileges of the Royal Governors in the Kingdom of Louisana. The American Confederation is a seperate realm from the Kingdom of Louisana, although both are ruled by one Administration, one Creed, and one King.

On Elections: A new body will be chartered by this decree. I hereby establish the Parliament of the Americas. There will be 100 Members of Parliament, elected directly by the people of the realm to serve as the voice of the people and to advise myself on the governance of the realm. All members, who may be any free man of good moral character and judicial standing, will be elected at-large by the provinces. The First Parliament will meet in New Orleans in a suitable public space for a term of four years and elect from among its members a First Minister, to serve as the Chief Representative of the Parliament to the Royal Court. The First Minister must maintain both the confidence of the Parliament and of the Crown. The Parliament can introduce bills, petitions, and resolutions and vote on advisory opinions for the consideration of the Royal Court in deciding matters of governance.

Each Royal Governor and the Mayor of New Orleans will, every five years, count the number of free white men in the province and receive a portion of the Members of Parliament reflective of that population. For the First Parliament, to convene no later than 100 days after this decree, each province will elect the following number of Members:

New Orleans - 28
Texas - 25
Des Moines - 22
Platte - 7
California - 7
Colorado - 6
Du Nord - 5

Given the State of War that exists in the American Confederation, it would be unwise to hold an election. Governor Stephens will serve as my adviser on the all matters relating to the American Confederation and will work towards holding elections for an additional 25 Members of Parliament when it is safe to do so.

For the elections, all free, white men who own land valued above $1,000 will be entitled and encouraged to vote. Polling locations should be established in court houses, churches, and town squares. Sheriffs and local law enforcement officers are encouraged to attend these polling places and ensure that they operate smoothly and there is no untoward behavior occurring.

On War Time Price Controls: I do acknowledge that, due to the increased hostilities with European tyrants over the last several years, many people in the Kingdom are hurting financially. As such, I hereby implement the following price controls, to ease the burden:

A bushel of wheat may not cost more than 80 pence
A pound of butter may not cost more than 20 pence
A pound of cheese may not cost more than 30 pence
A dozen eggs may not cost more than 17 pence
A quart of milk may not cost more than 5 pence
A yard of cashmere cloth may not cost more than 89 pence
A pound of bacon may not cost more than 7 pence
A pound of beef may not cost more than 10 pence

On the War in Europe: Some years ago, we in Louisana easily and proudly declared the Quebecois our friends and brothers. Today, we must do our honor and stand with the Quebecois in the war against the Scandinavians. It was the Quebecois who lent us their troops, and their Prussian cousins who lent us their talents, in the war against the Spanish. I now declare that the hearts and minds of the Kingdom of Louisana and the American Confederation are with the Quebecois and the Prussians in their noble effort.

By Order of His Majesty King Louis-Philippe II Bourbon
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« Reply #199 on: September 21, 2020, 04:34:59 pm »

Objectives for the next few years

In 5 years, the Persian Army shall be marching to Aleppo, Damascus, Mecca, and Medina to overthrow this so called Caliph, a well known debaucher who spits at the face of what is considered a holy man. I will reverse more than a millennia of deviation from the wills of god as stated by Prophet Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (Peace be Upon His Name) and rightfully put the track of the Islamic world as it should have been with the second successor, the second Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib if Allah wills it.

I’m calling on all Muslims righteous enough to lead to a victory for Islam by taking the right path. Anyone who impedes on the progress of the Sublime State of Persia here will be facing the wraith of all of the Ummah. Specifically, the might of the Persian Army and naval assets. What should be done is that the hungry rulers of Europe should instead make peace and share the spoils of a hefty feast on Turkeys in the Balkans and Northern Africa. I have no care for the Sublime Porte, but I know Christendom does.

Glory to Persia, who in my reign has engaged in great campaigns and modernized the country. The advancements in Architecture, infrastructure, and splendor in my realm is the highest since the Safavids. In fact, I will go further by expanding into land not held since the Achaemenids. Glory to the Court of Qajar, glory to Persia. Allah Akbar, he gives Muslims Prosperity.
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